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Check here all Antibiogram guidelines and references
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  1. Humphries RM, Ambler J, Mitchell SL, et al. CLSI Methods Development and Standardization Working Group Best Practices for Evaluation of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests. J Clin Microbiol. 2018;56(4):e01934-17. Published 2018 Mar 26. doi:10.1128/JCM.01934-17
  2. Cantón Moreno R. Lectura interpretada del antibiograma: ‘ejercicio intelectual o necesidad clínica? [Interpretive reading of the antibiogram: Intellectual exercise or clinical need?]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2002;20(4):176‐190. doi:10.1016/s0213-005x(02)72783-3
  3. Cantón R. Lectura interpretada del antibiograma: una necesidad clínica [Interpretive reading of the antibiogram: a clinical necessity] [published correction appears in Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2011 Mar;29(3):244]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2010;28(6):375‐385. doi:10.1016/j.eimc.2010.01.001
  4. Navarro F, Miró E, Mirelis B. Lectura interpretada del antibiograma de enterobacterias [Interpretive reading of enterobacteria antibiograms]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2010;28(9):638‐645. doi:10.1016/j.eimc.2010.05.002
  5. Soriano-García F. Aspectos farmacocinéticos y farmacodinámicos para la lectura interpretada del antibiograma [Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of interpretive reading of the antibiogram]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2010;28(7):461‐466. doi:10.1016/j.eimc.2010.02.005
  6. Torres C, Cercenado E. Lectura interpretada del antibiograma de cocos gram positivos [Interpretive reading of the antibiogram in gram positive cocci]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2010;28(8):541‐553. doi:10.1016/j.eimc.2010.02.003
  7. Ambrose PG. Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints: PK-PD and susceptibility breakpoints. Treat Respir Med. 2005;4 Suppl 1:5‐11.
  8. Livermore DM, Winstanley TG, Shannon KP. Interpretative reading: recognizing the unusual and inferring resistance mechanisms from resistance phenotypes. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001;48 Suppl 1:87‐102. doi:10.1093/jac/48.suppl_1.87
  9. Livermore DM, Struelens M, Amorim J, et al. Multicentre evaluation of the VITEK 2 Advanced Expert System for interpretive reading of antimicrobial resistance tests. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;49(2):289‐300. doi:10.1093/jac/49.2.289
  10. MacArthur RD. An updated guide to genotype interpretation. AIDS Read. 2004;14(5):256‐266.
  11. Humphries RM, Hindler JA, Magnano P, Wong-Beringer A, Tibbetts R, Miller SA. Performance of Ceftolozane-Tazobactam Etest, MIC Test Strips, and Disk Diffusion Compared to Reference Broth Microdilution for β-Lactam-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2018;56(3):e01633-17. Published 2018 Feb 22. doi:10.1128/JCM.01633-17
  12. Dudley MN, Ambrose PG, Bhavnani SM, et al. Background and rationale for revised clinical and laboratory standards institute interpretive criteria (Breakpoints) for Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: I. Cephalosporins and Aztreonam. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(9):1301‐1309. doi:10.1093/cid/cit017
  1. Bader MS, Loeb M, Brooks AA. An update on the management of urinary tract infections in the era of antimicrobial resistance. Postgrad Med. 2017;129(2):242‐258. doi:10.1080/00325481.2017.1246055
  2. Guay DR. An update on the role of nitrofurans in the management of urinary tract infections. Drugs. 2001;61(3):353‐364. doi:10.2165/00003495-200161030-00004
  3. Goldman JD, Julian K. Urinary tract infections in solid organ transplant recipients: Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Clin Transplant. 2019;33(9):e13507. doi:10.1111/ctr.13507
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  9. Kauffman CA. Diagnosis and management of fungal urinary tract infection. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2014;28(1):61‐74. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2013.09.004
  10. Foxman B. Urinary tract infection syndromes: occurrence, recurrence, bacteriology, risk factors, and disease burden. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2014;28(1):1‐13. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2013.09.003
  11. Wilde MH, McMahon JM, Crean HF, Brasch J. Exploring relationships of catheter-associated urinary tract infection and blockage in people with long-term indwelling urinary catheters. J Clin Nurs. 2017;26(17-18):2558‐2571. doi:10.1111/jocn.13626
  12. Vásquez V, Ampuero D, Padilla B. Urinary tract infections in inpatients: that challenge. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2017;30 Suppl 1:39‐41.
  13. Bischoff R, Marcon J, Stief CG, Magistro G. Harnwegsinfekt — oft nicht unkompliziert! [Complicated urinary tract infection: not always uncomplicated]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2019;161(1):44‐47. doi:10.1007/s15006-019-0067-x
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  16. Rieger KL, Bosso JA, MacVane SH, Temple Z, Wahlquist A, Bohm N. Intravenous-only or Intravenous Transitioned to Oral Antimicrobials for Enterobacteriaceae-Associated Bacteremic Urinary Tract Infection. Pharmacotherapy. 2017;37(11):1479‐1483. doi:10.1002/phar.2024
  17. Concia E, Bragantini D, Mazzaferri F. Clinical evaluation of guidelines and therapeutic approaches in multi drug-resistant urinary tract infections. J Chemother. 2017;29(sup1):19‐28. doi:10.1080/1120009X.2017.1380397
  18. Freire MP, de Oliveira Garcia D, Cury AP, et al. The role of therapy with aminoglycoside in the outcomes of kidney transplant recipients infected with polymyxin- and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019;38(4):755‐765. doi:10.1007/s10096-019-03468-4
  1. Holubar M, Meng L, Deresinski S. Bacteremia due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: New Therapeutic Approaches. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2016;30(2):491‐507. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2016.02.009
  2. Chaves F, Garnacho-Montero J, Del Pozo JL, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infection: Clinical guidelines of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology and (SEIMC) and the Spanish Society of Spanish Society of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC). Med Intensiva. 2018;42(1):5‐36. doi:10.1016/j.medin.2017.09.012
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  4. Llinares P, Iribarren JA. Tratamiento con daptomicina en pacientes con bacteriemia [Daptomycin therapy in patients with bacteremia]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2012;30 Suppl 1:17‐25. doi:10.1016/S0213-005X(12)70067-8
  5. Noël-Savina E, Paleiron N, Le Gal G, Descourt R. Emboles pulmonaires septiques après ablation d’une chambre implantable pour thrombophlébite septique [Septic pulmonary embolism after removal of a venous access device for septic thrombophlebitis]. J Mal Vasc. 2012;37(3):146‐149. doi:10.1016/j.jmv.2012.02.003
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  7. Plicht B, Lind A, Erbel R. Infektiöse Endokarditis : Neue Leitlinien 2015 [Infective endocarditis : New ESC guidelines 2015]. Internist (Berl). 2016;57(7):675‐690. doi:10.1007/s00108-016-0086-y
  8. Thornhill MH, Dayer M, Lockhart PB, et al. Guidelines on prophylaxis to prevent infective endocarditis. Br Dent J. 2016;220(2):51‐56. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2016.49
  9. Gould FK, Denning DW, Elliott TS, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of endocarditis in adults: a report of the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy [published correction appears in J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 May;67(5):1304]. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67(2):269‐289. doi:10.1093/jac/dkr450
  10. Gould FK, Denning DW, Elliott TS, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of endocarditis in adults: a report of the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy [published correction appears in J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 May;67(5):1304]. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67(2):269‐289. doi:10.1093/jac/dkr450
  11. Lung B, Duval X. Infective endocarditis: innovations in the management of an old disease. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2019;16(10):623‐635. doi:10.1038/s41569-019-0215-0
  12. Klein M, Wang A. Infective Endocarditis. J Intensive Care Med. 2016;31(3):151‐163. doi:10.1177/0885066614554906
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  14. Habib G, Lancellotti P, Antunes MJ, et al. Wytyczne ESC dotyczące leczenia infekcyjnego zapalenia wsierdzia w 2015 roku [2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis]. Kardiol Pol. 2015;73(11):963‐1027. doi:10.5603/KP.2015.0227
  15. The 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(44):3036‐3037. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv488
  16. Maisch B. ESC/AHA-Endokarditisleitlinien 2015 : Wettstreit oder Gleichklang? [ESC and AHA guidelines 2015 on endocarditis : In competition or synchrony?]. Herz. 2016;41(8):690‐696. doi:10.1007/s00059-016-4494-5
  17. Sendi P. Infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae: time for beta-hemolytic streptococci to follow treatment recommendations for S. aureus?. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019;38(3):419‐422. doi:10.1007/s10096-018-03446-2
  18. Tissot-Dupont H, Casalta JP, Gouriet F, et al. International experts’ practice in the antibiotic therapy of infective endocarditis is not following the guidelines. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017;23(10):736‐739. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2017.03.007
  19. Grillo S, Cuervo G, Carratalà J, et al. Impact of β-Lactam and Daptomycin Combination Therapy on Clinical Outcomes in Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: A Propensity Score-matched Analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;69(9):1480‐1488. doi:10.1093/cid/ciz018
  20. Crass RL, Powell KL, Huang AM. Daptomycin for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections complicated by septic pulmonary emboli. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019;93(2):131‐135. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.09.004
  21. McCreary EK, Kullar R, Geriak M, et al. Multicenter Cohort of Patients With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Receiving Daptomycin Plus Ceftaroline Compared With Other MRSA Treatments. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019;7(1):ofz538. Published 2019 Dec 31. doi:10.1093/ofid/ofz538
  22. Gudiol C, Cuervo G, Shaw E, Pujol M, Carratalà J. Pharmacotherapeutic options for treating Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2017;18(18):1947‐1963. doi:10.1080/14656566.2017.1403585
  23. Kaye KS, Patel T, Drusano G. Is Daptomycin plus Ceftaroline the Way To Go for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia?. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019;63(11):e01725-19. Published 2019 Oct 22. doi:10.1128/AAC.01725-19 
  24. Zasowski EJ, Trinh TD, Claeys KC, et al. Multicenter Observational Study of Ceftaroline Fosamil for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61(2):e02015-16. Published 2017 Jan 24. doi:10.1128/AAC.02015-16

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  1. Nau R, Djukic M, Spreer A, Ribes S, Eiffert H. Bacterial meningitis: an update of new treatment options. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2015;13(11):1401‐1423. doi:10.1586/14787210.2015.1077700
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The calculation of the dose of antibiotics was based on the Sanford guidelines and the international guidelines of the American Society of Infectious Diseases (IDSA Guidelines), endorsed by the infectious disease societies.

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